viernes, 28 de junio de 2013

SIR Models

May 14, 2013
(This article was first published on Econometrics by Simulation, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)
# The SIR Model (susceptible, infected, and recovered) model is a common and useful tool in epidemiological modelling.

# In this post and in future posts I hope to explore how this basic model can be enriched by including different population groups or disease vectors.

# Simulation Population Parameters:
# Proportion Susceptible
Sp = .9

# Proportion Infected
Ip = .1

# Population
N = 1000

# Number of periods
r = 200

# Number of pieces in each time period.
# A dynamic model can be simulated by dividing each dynamic period into a sufficient number of discrete pieces.
# As the number of pieces approaches infinity then the differences between the simulated outcome and the outcome achieved by solving the dynamic equations approaches zero.
np = 1

# Model - Dynamic Change
DS = function() -B*C*S*I/N
DI = function() (B*C*S*I/N) - v*I
DZ = function() v*I
# I is the number of people infected, N the number of people in total, S is the number of people susceptible for infection, and Z is the number of people immune to the infection (from already recovering from the infection).

# Model Parameters:
# Transmition rate from contact with an infected individual.
B = .2
# Contact rate. The number of people that someone becomes in contact with sufficiently to recieve transmition.
C = .5
# Recovery rate. Meaning the average person will recover in 20 days (3 weeks).
# This would have to be a particularly virolent form of the flu (not impossible at all).
v = .05

# Initial populations:

# Sesceptible population, Sv is a vector while S is the population values as the current period
Sv = S = Sp*N

# Infected, Iv is a vector while I is the population values as the current period
Iv = I = Ip*N

# Initial immunity.
Zv = Z = 0

# Now let's how the model works.
# Loop through periods
for (p in 1:r) {
# Loop through parts of periods
for (pp in 1:np) {

# Calculate the change values
ds = DS()/np
di = DI()/np
dz = DZ()/np

# Change the total populations
S = S + ds
I = I + di
Z = Z + dz

# Save the changes in vector form
Sv = c(Sv, S)
Iv = c(Iv, I)
Zv = c(Zv, Z)

# ggplot2 generates easily high quality graphics

# Save the data to a data frame for easy manipulation with ggplot
mydata = data.frame(Period=rep((1:length(Sv))/np,3), Population = c(Sv, Iv, Zv), Indicator=rep(c("Uninfected", "Infected", "Recovered"), each=length(Sv)))

# This sets up the plot but does not actually graph anything yet.
p <- aes="" ggplot="" group="Indicator))" mydata="" nbsp="" p="" x="Period," y="Population,">
# This graphs the first plot just by the use of the p command.
# Adding the geom_line plots the lines changing the color or the plot for each indicator (population group)
p + geom_line(aes(colour = Indicator)) + ggtitle("Flu Season")

# Save initial graph:

# Let's do some back of the envelope cost calculations.
# Let's say the cost of being infected with the flu is about $10 a day (a low estimate) in terms of lost productivity as well as expenses on treatment.
# This amounts to:
# Which is a cost of $165,663.40 over an entire flu season for the thousand people in our simulated sample.
# Or about $165 per person.

# Imagine if we could now do a public service intervention.
# Telling people to wash their hands, practice social distancing, and avoid touching their noses and eyes, and staying at home when ill.
# Let's say people take up these practices and it reduces the number of potential exposure periods per contact by half.
C = .25

# ....

p + geom_line(aes(colour = Indicator)) + ggtitle("Flu Season with Prevention")

# Save initial graph:

# ....

# Which is a cost of $76,331.58 over an entire flu season for the thousand people in our simulated sample or about 76 dollars per person.

# The difference in costs is about 89 thousand dollars for the whole population or on average 89 per person. The argument is therefore, so long as a public service intervention that reduces personal contact costs less than 89 thousand dollars for those 1000 people, then it is an efficient intervention (at least by the made up parameters I have here).

sábado, 11 de agosto de 2012

Air Pollution Control by Trees

Air Pollution Control by Trees

Trees and other vegetation must use what is in their environment. So it is not surprising to find that they absorb pollutants (natural or man made) which may be absorbed successfully or may cause the vegetation to die. Vegetation plays an unexpectedly large role in cleansing the atmosphere, a new study finds. The research, led by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo., uses observations, gene expression studies, and computer modeling to show that deciduous plants absorb about a third more of a common class of air-polluting chemicals than previously thought.


The ways that trees can help to clean the air should not be overlooked. Trees are an important, cost-effective solution to reducing pollution and improving air quality.
Trees help to lower air temperatures and the urban heat island affect. This reduction of temperature not only lowers energy use, it also improves air quality, as the formation of ozone is dependent on temperature.
Trees also reduce pollution by actively removing it from the atmosphere. Leaf stomata, the pores on the leaf surface, take in polluting gases which are then absorbed by water inside the leaf. Some species of trees are more susceptible to the uptake of pollution, which could negatively affect plant growth. Ideally, trees should be selected that take in higher quantities of polluting gases and are resistant to the negative affects they can cause.
A study across the Chicago region determined that trees removed approximately 17 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), 93 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 98 tons of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 210 tons of ozone in 1991.
The new study, results of which are being published this week in Science Express, was conducted with co-authors from the University of Northern Colorado and the University of Arizona.
"Plants clean our air to a greater extent than we had realized," says NCAR scientist Thomas Karl, the lead author. "They actively consume certain types of air pollution."
The research team focused on a class of chemicals known as oxygenated volatile organic compounds (oVOCs), which can have long-term impacts on the environment and human health.
"The team has made significant progress in understanding the complex interactions between plants and the atmosphere," says Anne-Marie Schmoltner of NSF's Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences.
The compounds form in abundance in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and other chemicals that are emitted from both natural sources--including plants--and sources related to human activities, including vehicles and construction materials.
Eventually, some oVOCs may evolve into tiny airborne particles, known as aerosols, that have important effects on both clouds and human health.
By measuring oVOC levels in a number of ecosystems in the United States and other countries, the researchers determined that deciduous plants appear to be taking up the compounds at an unexpectedly fast rate--as much as four times more rapidly than previously thought.
The uptake was especially rapid in dense forests and most evident near the tops of forest canopies, which accounted for as much as 97 percent of the oVOC uptake that was observed.
The scientists moved their research into their laboratories and focused on poplar trees. The species offered a significant advantage in that its genome has been sequenced.
The team found that when the study trees were under stress, either because of a physical wound or because of exposure to an irritant such as ozone pollution, they began sharply increasing their uptake of oVOCs.
At the same time, changes took place in expression levels of certain genes that indicated heightened metabolic activity in the poplars.
The uptake of oVOCs, the scientists concluded, appeared to be part of a larger metabolic cycle.
In order to metabolize these chemicals, the plants start increasing the levels of enzymes that transform the chemicals into less toxic substances.
At the same time, as it turns out, the plant draws down more oVOCs, which can be metabolized by the enzymes.
"Our results show that plants can actually adjust their metabolism and increase their uptake of atmospheric chemicals as a response to various types of stress," says Chhandak Basu of the University of Northern Colorado, a co-author.
"This complex metabolic process within plants has the side effect of cleansing our atmosphere."
Once they understood the extent to which plants absorb oVOCs, the research team fed the information into a computer model that simulates chemicals in the atmosphere worldwide.
The results indicated that, on a global level, plants are taking in 36 percent more oVOCs than had previously been accounted for in studies of atmospheric chemistry.
Additionally, since plants are directly removing the oVOCs, fewer of the compounds are evolving into aerosols.
A poet (Joyce Kilmer) once said:
"I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree.
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the earth's sweet flowing breast;"
In this case that lovely tree is eating our atmospheric poisons.

For further information:

miércoles, 27 de junio de 2012

Preguntas Frecuentes Práctica 3

¿La Práctica es individual'
R: Si
¿Fecha de entrega?
R3 de Julio

lunes, 25 de junio de 2012

environnemental links

                                       by Claude Lawrence Cornett, Jr.                                  12/23/2010

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   * Fundamentals Of Soil Science As Applicable To Management Of Hazardous Wastes 
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     dilution equation built into some more sophisticated models)
     - Ohio EPA Ohio EPA Derived Leach-Based Soil Values Technical Guidance    
     - SUMMERS to BUSTR-Screen (BIOSCREEN) to SESOL to AT123D and MODFLOW/MT3D Training 
     - Uncertainty    
     - Incorporated into Riskpro SESOIL (which has many more features    
     - Incorporated into SEVIEW 
   * VS2DT 
     - For 486, Win to Win NT 
     - BIOSCREEN AT Free Modified Version    
   * VLEACH 
     - EPA Webpage 
     - Model Users manual 
     - Free Version and Useful links 
     - Groundwater Vistas, advanced Env. for running Modflow, lots of extra graphics,
       statistical modules, etc.    
     - Statistical Analysis Of Modflow, etc!620    
   * HELP model for landfill leachate 
     - OEPA Guidance    
     - Free HELP    
     - for list of parameters 
     - Visual HELP 
   * SESOIL (an integrated screening- level soil compartment model and is designed
     to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate)
     - Riskpro SESOIL    
     - for list of parameters 
     - for description of parameters 
     - Ohio EPA Ohio EPA Derived Leach-Based Soil Values Technical Guidance    
     - OEPA Use of SESOIL 
     - Acceptable ground water recharge rates for SESOIL
       but when man-made cover present    
     - A Methodology for Establishing Cleanup Objectives in the Unsaturated Soil
       Zone Using Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis for Chemical Fate and Transport
       by Oak Ridge researchers for Portsmouth plant    
   * CHEMFLO Simulates leaching using Richards Equation and Convection/Dispersion 
   * RBCA Tool Kit and 
     SOIL ATTENUATION  MODEL (SAM) for Derivation of Risk-Based Soil Remediation Standards    
   * VS2DTI 
     - EPA Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values    
     - OEPA Search to download spreadsheet 
     - OEPA TDD Vapor Intrusion 
     - EPA Johnson and Ettinger Model Links    
     - EPA Sponsored User's Guide For Evaluating Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Into
     - EPA On-line Tools for Site Assessment Calculations--Evaluating Vapor Intrusion
       Using the Johnson and Ettinger Model, US EPA    
     - Uncertainty in above    
   * ASTM RBCA Based Models 
     - RBCA Site Classification Worksheet (Arizona)    
     - RBCA Toolkit 
     - RBCA Tier II Analyzer    

   * SEVIEW runs and interfaces Modflow Summers, AT123D, plus runs BIOSCREEN and    BUSTR-Screen models, etc, also has link to SESOIL 
   * Ohio Training On Above 
   * VISUAL MODFLOW, etc.    
   * GW MODEL LINKS (California)    
   * TOUGH2V2 
     (If field people informed, better to use notes, photos, etc. Provides ASTM 1527 
      checklists, etc. for PDA interfaced with boilerplate MS Word reports)

   * EPA EPA Order 5360.1 CHG 1 07/16/98 Policy And Program Requirements For The Mandatory Agency-Wide Quality System
   * EPA Data Quality Objectives Process for Hazardous Waste Site Investigations (EPA QA/G-4HW Final)
   * EPA Data Quality Objectives Process for Superfund: Interim Final Guidance
   * EPA Overview of the EPA Quality System for Environmental Data and Technology
   * ANSI/ASQC E4-1994, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data 
     Collection and Environmental Technology Programs
   * EPA Data Quality Objectives Guidance 
   * EPA Guidance for Data Quality Assessment-- Practical Methods forData Analysis (EPA QA/G-9)
   * EPA Data Quality Evaluation Statistical Tools (DataQUEST)  

   * EPA ProUCL Model for processing Environmental Monitoring Data
   * Environmental Statistical Analysis Software for Windows    including 
     - Chemstat (for EPA RCRA analysis -- portions might be out of date since it
       references RCRA rules thru 1992)    
     - Chempoint for Environmental Data Management and Contouring    
     - and other modules
   * Links to Various Data Quality Related Software  
   * SAS 
   * Analyze-it 
   * WINKS 
   * XLSTAT-Pro 
   * StatTools 

   * Decision Support Tools Homepage 
   * Decision Support Tools Matrix (with Links to models)    
   * Spatial analysis and Decision analysis model freeware(found link from EPA site) 
   * Draft EPA Guidance on Surface Soil Cleanup at Hazardous Waste Sites: Implementing
     Cleanup Levels 
   * GPS/CAD Conversion Software    
   * DOE Integrated Planning, Accounting and Budgeting System (cost, etc.) 
   * Colorado/DOI CERCLA Cost Estimation Handbook    
   * Cost Estimating Tools and Resources for Brownfields    
   * Subcontractor Information System Spreadsheet    
   * RS Means Construction Cost Estimator On-line:    
   * Construction Scheduling: Principles and Practices    
   * US Air Force Center for Engineering and Environment Review of Source Zone
     Oriented Software for Designing Remedial Action  
   * Software to Extend Ms Excel Chart Features (XY plots without row cell numbers,fancy presentations, etc.)
     - EZ-Chart? (still does not put x axis on consistent scale)
   * MathCAD 14.0 with MathPRO/Engineer Integration    $1200 +$800 training, etc. , overkill for Excel useful for other calculations
   * GPS/CAD Conversion Software    
   * SNAG-IT Screen Capture    
   * WinSnap Screen Capture
   * Aerial Photography and Maps (besides Yahoo Maps and Google Maps)
     - Microsoft TerraServer (has aerial photos and Topo maps)    
     - USGS Aerial Photography    
     - Microsoft Aerial Photos    (their software installation tends to crash many Windows XP Pro PCs) 
     - Other Aerial Photos 
     - Topo Maps, converted to various formats (CAD, GIS, etc).    
   * USGS Map locator and download page*aHR0cF9jb250ZW50X2NoYXJzZXQ9aXNvLTg4NTktMSZ*U3RhdGU9MjQ1MjQuMDAxLjAzLjA2====?~okcode=SESH    
   * USGS Water Flow, Groundwater Height, etc. Data    
   * FEMA Flood Map Service Center    
   * Wetlands Maps
   * Oil and Gas Well Locator Map 
   * Groundwater Wells in Ohio, by County    
   * Topographic Maps 
   * Groundwater Wells in Ohio by Longitude and Latitude    
   * Environmental Data Resources, Inc. ("EDR"), federal environmental
     record databases search reports (RadiusMap with GeoCheck, NEPACheck, etc.)    
   * ASTM E50 on Environmental Assessment    
   * ASTM Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action at Chemical Release Sites 
     [ASTM E2081-00(2004)e1]    
   * ASTM Guide For Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied At Petroleum Release Sites
     (RBCA) [ASTM E-1739-95]    
   * ASTM Standard Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With
     Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Ground Water [ASTM D5730-04]    
   * ISO 14000 User Portal 
   * ISO 9000, 14000 etc 
   * Ohio EPA Waste Standards 
     - OAC Chapter 3745-27: Solid & Infectious Waste Regulations    
     - Hazardous Waste, Universal Waste and Used Oil Final Rules, Regulations &
     - Land Disposal Treatment Standards    
     - Land Disposal Treatment Technologies    
     - OEPA 3745-270-49 Alternative Land Disposal Treatment Standards for Contaminated
     - Ohio EPA Universal Waste Management Standards    
     - OEPA Div Hazwaste Management Guidance Documents
     - Part B Permit Review Checklist    
   * OEPA ODH. General Rules, etc.
     - OEPA Rules Index 
     - ODH Rules Index 
     - OEPA Water Use Designations and Statewide Criteria. 3745-1-07    
     - OEPA Determinations Preliminary To Development of Water Quality-Based Effluent
       Limitations. 3745-2-04    
     - OEPA Methodology for Vapor Intrusion Assessment    
     - OEPA Air Toxics    
     - OEPA DHWM Forms and Publications    
     - OEPA Division of Surface Water 
     - OEPA March 2008 Closure Plan Review Guidance for RCRA Facilities    
     - OEPA Guidance for Statistical Evaluation of Hazardous Waste Constituent Levels
       in Soils    
     - OEPA Rule 13, Construction, etc. On or Near Landfills    
     - ODH General Radiation Protection Standards for Sources 3701:1-38    
     - ODH Licensing for By-Product and Accelerator Produced 3701:1-40  
   * OEPA VAP Rules 
     - VAP Rules 
     - VAP Fact Sheet 
     - OEPA Phase II property Assessment Rules 3745-300-07
       (see D(4)(a) for Soil levels for GW)
     - OEPA Rule 3745-2-05 
     - OEPA Site Assessment and Brownfields Revitalization Pgm. SABR (including link
       to Conference 11/27-28) 
     - Green Ohio 2001 Critique of Ohio EPA VAP    
     - OEPA VAP Rules Under Consideration
   * Ohio EPA Technical Decision Compendium    
   * Content of No Further Action Letters 3745-300-13    
   * Soil Based Screening Levels
     - Soil Screening Guidance: Technical Background Document, EPA OSWER, 1996 EPA/540/R-95/128 
     - TDC Applicability of US EPA Soil Screening levels Via Leaching    
     - Leach Based Screening Values, Cumulative Adjustment    
     - Ohio EPA Leach-based Soil Values Technical Guidance Document    
     - OEPA Phase II property Assessment Rules 3745-300-07 
      (see D(4)(a) for Soil levels for GW) 
     - Generic Numerical Standards for Soil 3745-300-08 
       (See Support Document for the Development of Generic Numerical Standards and    Risk Assessment Procedures Ohio EPA, February 2002 in file for detailed derivation)    
     - OEPA Property Specific risk assessment procedures 3745-300-09    
     - VAP NFA Checklist 
     - Ohio EPA (RCRA) Closure Plan Review Guidance (CPRG): 
     - Pertinent: Fire Marshall BUSTR Action Levels for Petroleum contaminated soils 
     - OEPA Rainwater and Land Development Manual    
     - OEPA Division of Natural Resources Soil and Water Conservation Homepage    
     - OEPA Construction Site Inspection Checklist  
     (Emphasizing TDCs pertinent to modeling and related geophysical monitoring
      - VA30007.00.000 - Phase II Property Assessment
      - VA30007.00.001 - Identified Areas Extending Beyond the Off-Property Boundaries
      - VA30007.03.002 - Slag as Background
      - VA30007.03.003 - Use of Native Soils as Background, When Present Beneath Fill Materials
      - VA30007.03.004 - Identification of Ground Water Zones (ID Saturated Zone,etc.)
      - VA30007.03.005 - Ground Water Sample Filtration    
      - VA30007.03.006 - Use of Direct Push Technology in lieu of Monitoring Wells for Ground Water Classification
      - VA30007.03.007 - Determining Maximum Yield or Average Annual Yield (and related    classification of GW based on Max yield)
      - VA30007.03.008 - Biasing Yield or Hydraulic Conductivity Testing to Areas 
                         of Highest Yield or hydraulic Conductivity
      - VA30007.03.009 - Appropriate Application of Yield and Hydraulic Conductivity Data
      - VA30007.03.010 - Determining Ground Water Yield When Well Intakes Are Less Than 80% 
                         of the Thickness of a Saturated Zone
      - VA30007.03.011 - Universe of Chemicals of Concern for a Protection of Ground
                         Water Demonstration (includes which COCs require Multiple Chemical Adjustment
                         for Protection of Groundwater
      - VA30007.03.012 - Separation Distance Between Source Area(s) and Ground Water 
      - VA30007.03.013 - Appropriate SESOIL Version to Use for Voluntary Actions    
      - VA30007.03.014 - Use of Modeling to Estimate the 95% UCL for Demonstrations 
                         of the Protection of Ground Water    
      - VA30007.03.015 - Use of Literature Degradation Rates in a Property-Specific
                         Fate and Transport Modeling Evaluation    
      - VA30007.03.017 - Use of SESOIL for Modeling the Fate and Transport of Metals 
      - VA30007.03.018 - Applicability of U.S. EPA's Soil Screening Levels via the
                         Leaching Pathway 
      - VA30007.03.019 - Sampling and Analysis of Fraction Organic Carbon (foc) in Soils 
      - VA30007.03.020 - What to do When There is No Laboratory Certified for the 
                         Analysis of a Specific Chemical of Concern of Analytical Method
      - VA30007.04.001 - Use of Off-Property Data for Classification of Ground 
      - VA30007.04.002 - Soil and Sediment Sampling: Wet Weight versus Dry Weight
      - VA30007.05.001 - Guidance for Computing the 95% UCL of an Environmental Data Set 
      - VA30007.05.002 - Use of Direct Push for Ground Water Sampling    
      - VA30007.05.003 - Acceptable Ground Water Recharge Rates for SESOIL Modeling 
      - VA30007.05.004 - Use of Soil Partitioning Coefficient to Evaluate Leaching 
      - VA30007.05.005 - Use of RBCA Tool Kit ® and SAM to Evaluate Leaching    
      - VA30007.06.001 - Alternative Point of Compliance for Residential Land Use 
      - VA30007.06.002 - Clarification of Whether the Protection of Ground Water Requirement
                         Applies to Each Chemical of Concern Separately 
      - VA30007.06.003 - Requirements to Evaluate Leaching When Ground Water Exceeds
                         Unrestricted Potable Use Standards    
      - VA30007.07.001 - Use of Appropriate Ground Water Recharge Rate in SESOIL Modeling    When Manmade Cover Is Present  
   * VA3008.00.000 - Generic Numerical Standards
     - VA30008.03.001 - How to Conduct Multiple Chemical Adjustments Under the Voluntary
                        Action Program 
     - VA30008.03.002 - Cumulative Adjustment for Lead and TPH    
     - VA30008.03.003 - Cumulative Adjustment of Leach-Based Soil Values    
     - VA30008.03.004 - Applying Petroleum Standards for Residential and VA30009.00.000 Property-Specific Risk Assessment Current
   * VA30009.00.000 - Property-Specific Risk Assessment
     - VA30009.97.001 - Recommended Toxicological Assessment of Dibenzofuran 
     - VA30009.02.001 - Demonstration of Compliance with Applicable Standards and
                        Response Requirements for Sediments When Contamination Is Attributable Entirely
                        to Off-property Sources
     - VA30009.02.002 - Determining Applicable Standards for Human Direct-Contact
                        Exposures to Sediments Using Generic Direct-Contact Soil Standards 
     - VA30009.03.001 - Determining Background for Sediments 
     - VA30009.04.001 - Evaluating Exposure to Ground Water for the Construction
                        Worker and Excavation Activity Receptor Populations 
     - VA30009.06.001 - Supplemental Values for Chemicals of Concern without Generic
                      Numerical Standards 
   * Archived
     - VA30009.95.001 - Evaluating Carcinogenic and Noncarcinogenic Risk Posed by Chromium (III) and Chromium (VI)
   * VA30010.00.000 - Ground Water Classification and Response Requirements Current
                      Purpose of USD and Standards (See VA30010 .03.005)
   * VA30010.00.001 - Rigor of Ground Water Assessment When Off-Property Data Exist(See VA30007.04.001)
   * VA30010.01.001 - Ground Water Sample Filtration (See VA30007.03.005)
   * VA30010.00.003 - Response Requirements for Off-Property Ground Water Contamination
                      in a Class A Aquifer if Adjacent Property Owner is Uncooperative
     - VA30010.03.001 - Classification of Class B Ground Water by Comparison to Another    Ground Water Zone
     - VA30010.03.002 - When to Demonstrate the Protection of Ground Water Zones    Meeting Unrestricted Potable Use Standards
     - VA30010.03.003 - Determination That Not Less Than 90% of Parcels Are Connected    to a Community Water System for an Urban Setting Designation
     - VA30010.03.004 - Determination of Wells Used for Potable Purposes 
     - VA30010.03.005 - Urban Setting Designation Notification Letter: Purpose of    USD and Standards
     - VA30010.04.001 - Capture Zone of a Well   
   * VA30010.00.004 - Comparison to Another Saturated Zone to Determine that a
                      Zone Falls below the Criteria of Class A Ground Water (SeeVA30010.03.001)

   * Archived
     - VA30010.95.001 - The Definition of Ground Water in the VAP Interim Program
     - VA30010.98.001 - Classification of Ground Water in the VAP
     - VA30010.98.011 - VAP FAQ #10: Use of Long-Term Monitoring to Demonstrate the
       Protection of Ground Water Requirements
     - VA30010.98.012 - VAP FAQ #11: Qualitative Demonstration of the Protection
       of Ground Water Requirements (See VA30007.03.012) (cited specifically in the
       Jan 2005 OEPAA document but out of date. Refers to VA30007.03.012 for current,but that one is not on-line. 
     - VA30010.98.016 - VAP FAQ #15: Urban Setting Designation Notification Letter
   * VA30015.00.000 - O&M/Remedies
     - VA30015.01.001 - Using a Passive Remedy to Ensure Compliance with Applicable
                        Standards for Potential "Future" Exposure Scenarios
     - VA30015.04.001 - Injection Wells Used for Remedial Purposes
     - VA30015.05.001 - Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements for the Off-Site Shipment    of Hazardous Waste at VAP Properties
     - VA30015.05.002 - Implementing Fencing Restrictions as Remedial Activities
   * OTHER 
     - Texas Guidance for Deriving Screening Levels, Reference Values and Unit Risk
   * ATC Associates 
   * Ensafe 
   * Environmental Software Consultants (608) 240-9878
   * Hull and Associates 
   * HZW Environmental 
   * McCabe Engineering/Contracting implements remediation, etc.)
   * Pandy Env.: helped develop OEPA Soil Based Screening Levels/Rulesb    
   * Tetra Tech 
   * National Brownfield Associations and
     associated publications, including Brownfield News & Sustainable Development
   * Society for Risk Analysis 
     - Publications, including Water Environment Research, etc.), conferences, etc. 
     - Mailing Lists for Risk Professionals    
   * Association For Environmental Health and Sciences 
     and associated publications: Soil And Sediment Contamination An International 
     Journal , conferences, etc.    
   * National Ground Water Association 
     and its publications
     - Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation    
     - Ground Water
       etc,) Conferences, etc. 
   * American Water Works Association and its publications
     (including a series of documents on Contamination Transport through Aquitards
   * The Journal Of Solid Waste Technology And Management    
   * MSW Management, The Journal For Municipal Solid Waste Professionals    
   * Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) and their many
     publications and articles: 
   * Ohio Brownfield's Interested Party List
   * Air and Waste Management Association 
   * Source Evaluation Society 
   * Get Environmental Engineer Jobs